Magento 2 follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern to organize and manage the codebase. The MVC pattern helps to separate the concerns of data, presentation, and application logic, making the codebase more modular and maintainable. Here’s how Magento 2 implements the MVC pattern:
The Model represents the data and business logic of the application. In Magento 2, models are responsible for data manipulation, storage, and retrieval. They interact with the database or external systems to fetch or update data. Models are typically located in the Model directory and follow the naming convention of \\Model.
The View handles the presentation layer and is responsible for rendering the user interface. In Magento 2, views are implemented using a combination of templates, layouts, and blocks. Templates are responsible for displaying the actual HTML content, layouts define the structure of the page, and blocks provide the logic and data to the templates. View-related files are typically located in the view directory and follow the naming convention of _.
The Controller receives requests from the user and coordinates the interaction between the Model and the View. In Magento 2, controllers are responsible for processing user actions, retrieving data from models, and returning appropriate responses. Controllers are typically located in the Controller directory and follow the naming convention of \\Controller.
The interaction between the Model, View, and Controller in Magento 2 follows a flow:
The user makes a request to a specific URL in the browser.
Magento’s routing mechanism maps the requested URL to a specific controller action.
The controller action is executed, where it can fetch or modify data using the relevant models.
The controller action prepares the necessary data and passes it to the appropriate view.
The view is rendered, combining the layout structure, block logic, and template content.
The rendered output is sent back as a response to the user’s request.
Blocks are an integral part of the View layer in Magento 2. They provide the logic and data required by the templates to render the final HTML output. Blocks are PHP classes that encapsulate specific functionality and are responsible for fetching and processing data. They can also contain business logic related to the presentation layer.
Blocks are instantiated and managed by the layout system. The layout XML files define the structure of a page or a section of a page and specify which blocks to include. Blocks can be placed within the layout XML files using various layout instructions, such as block, referenceBlock, or container.
Blocks can communicate with models to retrieve data or perform data manipulation. They can also interact with other blocks to share data or coordinate actions.
Helpers in Magento 2 are utility classes that provide reusable functions and methods. They are not directly tied to any specific layer of the MVC pattern but are commonly used within the Model, View, and Controller components.
Helpers encapsulate common functionality that can be used across different parts of the application. For example, a helper class might contain methods for data formatting, string manipulation, URL generation, or other general-purpose tasks. Helpers promote code reusability and reduce code duplication.
To use a helper in Magento 2, you typically call the helper class and the desired method statically, like HelperClass::methodName(). Magento provides a helper class called Magento\Framework\App\Helper\AbstractHelper, which you can extend to create custom helpers for your module.
Helpers can be accessed within various components of Magento 2, including controllers, blocks, templates, and other helpers, providing a convenient way to share common functionality and promote modular code design.
In summary, Blocks are responsible for providing data and logic to the templates for rendering, while Helpers are utility classes that offer reusable functions and methods for various parts of the application. Together with the Model, View, and Controller, Blocks and Helpers contribute to the modular and maintainable nature of Magento 2’s MVC architecture.
Overall, Magento 2’s implementation of the MVC pattern provides a structured way to separate concerns and handle different aspects of the application. This separation allows for better code organization, reusability, and maintainability.